HIV-Associated Cancer Information
Patients with HIV infection are at increased risk for a number of types of cancer. Certain cancers are “AIDS-defining”; they confer a diagnosis of AIDS when they occur in an HIV-infected patient. These “AIDS-defining” cancers are Kaposi’s sarcoma, certain high-grade B cell lymphomas, primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas, and invasive cervical cancer. “AIDS-related”, “AIDS-associated”, or “HIV-associated” are more general terms used to describe cancers whose incidence is increased in HIV-infected patients. Many, but not all, of the cancers associated with HIV infection are associated with cancer-causing viruses such as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or human papillomavirus (HPV).
The table below lists some of the more important HIV-associated tumors. For each tumor is shown its “standardized incidence ratio” (SIR), the relative frequency of the tumor in HIV-infected patients as compared to the general population in the United States, for the period from 1996 to 2002. AIDS-defining tumors are shown in red. Among the non-AIDS defining tumors, the most common overall in HIV-infected patients is lung cancer because it has a high underlying incidence in the general population.
|Kaposi sarcoma||Greater than 1000|
|Primary CNS lymphoma||1020|
|Cancer of the cervix||5|
|Cancer of the anus||20|
|Cancer of the penis||8|
|Cancer of the larynx||3|
|Cancer of the mouth or pharynx||2|
|All non-AIDS-associated cancers||2|
From E.A. Engels et al., AIDS 2006, 20: 1645-1654.
Information on Specific HIV-Associated Cancers
Below is information about specific HIV-associated cancers provided by the NCI elsewhere on Cancer.gov. For most cancers the link is directed to general information on the specific cancer. For Kaposi's sarcoma, AIDS-related lymphoma, and primary CNS lymphoma there is general information for patients and also more detailed information for health professionals.
- AIDS-related cancers
- Kaposi sarcoma [patient] [health professional]
- AIDS-related lymphoma [patient] [health professional]
- Primary CNS lymphoma [patient] [health professional]
- Cervical cancer
- Anal cancer
- Hodgkin lymphoma
- Penile cancer
- Liver cancer
- Laryngeal cancer
- Lung cancer
For information on other HIV-associated cancers or cancers that may arise in the setting of HIV, you can look up the particular cancer type in NCI Cancer Topics.
AIDSinfo has general information on HIV/AIDS.